Energy-efficient I/O interface design with adaptive power-supply regulation


This paper presents a low-power high-speed CMOS signaling interface that operates off of an adaptively regulated supply. A feedback loop adjusts the supply voltage on a chain of inverters until the delay through the chain is equal to half of the input period. This voltage is then distributed to the I/O subsystem through an efficient switching power-supply regulator. Dynamically scaling the supply with respect to frequency leads to a simple and robust design consisting mostly of digital CMOS gates, while enabling maximum energy efficiency. The interface utilizes high-impedance drivers for operation across a wide range of voltages and frequencies, a dual-loop delay-locked loop for accurate timing recovery, and an input receiver whose bandwidth tracks with the I/O frequency to filter out high-frequency noise. Test chips fabricated in a 0.35-/spl mu/m CMOS technology achieve transfer rates of 0.2-1.0 Gb/s/pin with a regulated supply ranging from 1.3-3.2 V.
Last updated on 05/06/2022