Publications by Author: Douglas Clark

Qiang Wu, Margaret Martonosi, Douglas Clark, Vijay Reddi, Dan Connors, Youfeng Wu, Jin Lee, and David Brooks. 1/2006. “Dynamic-compiler-driven control for microprocessor energy and performance.” Micro, IEEE, 26, 1, Pp. 119–129. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A general dynamic-compilation environment offers power and performance control opportunities for microprocessors. The authors propose a dynamic-compiler-driven runtime voltage and frequency optimizer. A prototype of their design, implemented and deployed in a real system, achieves energy savings of up to 70 percent
Qiang Wu, Margaret Martonosi, Douglas Clark, Vijay Reddi, Dan Connors, Youfeng Wu, Jin Lee, and David Brooks. 11/12/2005. “A dynamic compilation framework for controlling microprocessor energy and performance.” In Proceedings of the 38th annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture, Pp. 271–282. Barcelona: IEEE Computer Society. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an effective technique for controlling microprocessor energy and performance. Existing DVFS techniques are primarily based on hardware, OS time-interrupts, or static-compiler techniques. However, substantially greater gains can be realized when control opportunities are also explored in a dynamic compilation environment. There are several advantages to deploying DVFS and managing energy/performance tradeoffs through the use of a dynamic compiler. Most importantly, dynamic compiler driven DVFS is fine-grained, code-aware, and adaptive to the current microarchitecture environment. This paper presents a design framework of the run-time DVFS optimizer in a general dynamic compilation system. A prototype of the DVFS optimizer is implemented and integrated into an industrial-strength dynamic compilation system. The obtained optimization system is deployed in a real hardware platform that directly measures CPU voltage and current for accurate power and energy readings. Experimental results, based on physical measurements for over 40 SPEC or Olden benchmarks, show that significant energy savings are achieved with little performance degradation. SPEC2K FP benchmarks benefit with energy savings of up to 70% (with 0.5% performance loss). In addition, SPEC2K INT show up to 44% energy savings (with 5% performance loss), SPEC95 FP save up to 64% (with 4.9% performance loss), and Olden save up to 61% (with 4.5% performance loss). On average, the technique leads to an energy delay product (EDP) improvement that is 3times-5times better than static voltage scaling, and is more than 2times (22% vs. 9%) better than the reported DVFS results of prior static compiler work. While the proposed technique is an effective method for microprocessor voltage and frequency control, the design framework and methodology described in this paper have broader potential to address other energy and power issues such as di/dt and thermal control
A dynamic compilation framework for controlling microprocessor energy and performance
Christina Leung, David Brooks, Margaret Martonosi, and Douglas Clark. 1998. “Power-Aware Architecture Studies: Omgoing Work at Princeton.” Power-Driven Microarchitecture Workshop.Abstract
Power dissipation limits have emerged as a major constraint in the design of microprocessors. At the low end of the performance spectrum, namely in the world of handheld and portable devices or systems, power has always dominated over performance (execution time) as the primary design issue. Battery life and system cost constraints drive the design team to consider power over performance in such a scenario. Increasingly, however, power is also a key design issue in the workstation and server markets (see Gowan et al.)1 In this high-end arena the increasing microarchitectural complexities, clock frequencies, and die sizes push the chiplevel—and hence the system-level—power consumption to such levels that traditionally air-cooled multiprocessor server boxes may soon need budgets for liquid-cooling or refrigeration hardware. This need is likely to cause a break point—with a step upward—in the ever-decreasing price-performance ratio curve. As such, a design team that considers power consumption and dissipation limits early in the design cycle and can thereby adopt an inherently lower power microarchitectural line will have a definite edge over competing teams. Thus far, most of the work done in the area of high-level power estimation has been focused at the register-transfer-level (RTL) description in the processor design flow. Only recently have we seen a surge of interest in estimating power at the microarchitecture definition stage, and specific work on power-efficient microarchitecture design has been reported.2-8 Here, we describe the approach of using energy-enabled performance simulators in early design. We examine some of the emerging paradigms in processor design and comment on their inherent power-performance characteristics.
Power-Aware Architecture Studies: Omgoing Work at Princeton